The effect of the roughness is only useful over a fairly narrow range of operating conditions. In fluid dynamics, we use the Reynolds number for the characteristic operating ranges and it turns out that the balls used in many sports happen to operate within a Reynolds number range in which the roughness has a significant effect on the boundary layer the thin layer right next to the surface where the liquid interacts strongly with the surface through the viscosity of the liquid. I suspect this was not just a coincidence, but rather, as the balls changed as the sports evolved, interesting behavior happened for certain sizes at speed. is certain and people like that aspect, so they kept balls of that size for that particular sport.
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But this is only speculation from my side. I have never considered the evolutionary history of balls of different sizes and speeds for different sports. Planes operating in the Reynolds number range differ greatly from sports balls and the effects of roughness are often detrimental e.g. causing increased drag and fuel consumption. However, for some specific conditions roughness can be beneficial. In a sense, the jamming machine is also known as the vortex generator you see on the wings is some kind of beneficial roughness. In this case, they help prevent detachment on the flaps during landing. They are worthwhile for that benefit during landing even though them representing a small drag penalty throughout the journey phase.